Cause of abdominal pain in children without apparent reason: Psychosomatic component A systematic review that is published in the current problem of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics by Schulte and associates analyzes what’s the psychosomatic element of abdominal pain without apparent cause in kids. The objective of this study was to examine the extant literature on functional abdominal discomfort in childhood through the zoom lens of the developmental psychopathology perspective also to systematize research results through a two-stage pathway model where the emergence of practical abdominal discomfort and its own potential transition into a somatoform adjustment disorder is certainly outlined.Similarly, the amount of air flow exhaled in six seconds significantly improved through the treatment period with roflumilast while significant deterioration occurred among sufferers who received placebo. Furthermore, patients treated with roflumilast acquired 34 % fewer exacerbations compared with placebo. The mean number of exacerbations in the roflumilast treatment group was 1.03 and 0.75 for the 250 mcg and 500 mcg, respectively, compared to 1.13 for the placebo group over the 24-week trial period . Exacerbations typically require increase use of bronchodilator or steroid therapy and/or physician and emergency room visits to regulate symptoms. Roflumilast was well tolerated in the treating patients with COPD generally.