The genome-wide association studies from the National Human Genome Research Institute , part of the NIH are performed. The first year funding for the studies was contributed by all NIH institutes and centers, including an additional investment of NIH National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research . NHGRI is one of 27 institutes and centers at the NIH, an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services. The NHGRI Division of extramural research facilities support grants for research and for training and career development at sites nationwide.

In 2005, dental health care costs reached nearly 84 billion U.S. Dollars, of which 60 % , or about $ 50 billion was linked to the treatment of cavities. Childhood caries is a serious public health problem due to the associated health problems and because differences in oral health substantially higher average substantially higher average prevalence of the disease in children in poverty and in underserved racial and ethnic groups.Blind, placebo announces positive results of Phase 2a trial by PL-3994 to treat heart failure.

The previously announced period 1 study showed that UK-3994 can be provided safely and a dose-dependent lowering blood pressure and increase cGMP level, diuresis causes and natriuretic . The data from this first study, to present at the 12 Annual Scientific Meeting of of the Heart Failure Society of America in Toronto, to be supported Date September 21-24, in 2008 accepts. Palatin Technologies.